A new Deakin study proves simple dietary changes can be used as a possible treatment for depression. Previous research has shown a link between diet and mental health disorders but the latest study is the first of its kind to confirm a healthy diet, which includes lean meats, significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms.
The SMILES trial*, published in BMC Medicine, was a 12-week randomised controlled trial looking at the effects of a healthy diet in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. According to the study, a healthy diet includes wholegrains, vegetables, fish and lean red meats while limiting unhealthy extras such as sweets, refined cereals, fried foods and sugary drinks.
Interestingly, the healthy diet was based on a modified version of the Mediterranean diet and is higher in fat and lower in carbohydrates than current nutritional guidelines. Study author, Felice Jacka says it’s worth noting the diet recommended lean red meat 3-4 times per week as per Australian dietary guidelines.
“Clearly this study adds to the growing body of evidence that a healthy diet is an essential component of mental health,” says clinical psychologist Julia Rucklidge.
An earlier study by the same authors found women who ate a more traditional diet had a 30% reduced risk for major depression and anxiety disorders compared to those following a ‘Western’ dietary pattern. A traditional diet is rich in vegetables, fruit, wholegrains and high-quality meats whereas a typical ‘Western diet’ is made up of junk food, white bread, sugar and alcohol.
High-quality meats such as beef, lamb and fish, contain selenium, zinc, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D3 and omega-3’s which are all known to play a role in brain function, behaviour and emotions. Women who included these meats had more positive mental health outcomes than women who ate unhealthy, processed foods.
It is thought processed and “unhealthy” foods such as refined carbohydrates, increase inflammation in the body and may, in part, explain the link between diet and depression.
But dietitian, Sarah Hanrahan, warns against obsessing over single nutrients and instead encourages an eating pattern that includes a variety of healthy foods. “When we diet we often put too much focus on cutting out certain foods but this can lead to micronutrient deficiencies when we do not eat enough. Deficiencies in essential nutrients can lead to worsening of symptoms of mood disorders,” says Hanrahan.
The SMILES trial participants ate according to the following healthy diet plan:
Daily: Six servings of vegetables, five servings of wholegrains, three servings of fruit, two servings of unsweetened dairy, one serving of raw, unsalted nuts, and three tablespoons of olive oil
Weekly: Three to four servings of lean red meat, two servings of chicken, up to six eggs and at least two servings of fish
Extras: No more than three servings per week of sweets, refined cereal, fried food, fast food and soft drink
Alcohol: No more than two glasses of red wine a day, only with dinner